CG ECSE4750 Computer Graphics Final Exam, RPI, Mon 20171218
Name, RCSID:
. .
Rules:
 You have 180 minutes.
 You may bring in two 2sided 8.5"x11" papers with notes.
 You may not share material with each other during the exam.
 No collaboration or communication (except with the staff) is allowed.
 There are 30 questions. Check that your copy of this test has all the pages.
Questions:

_____/2 Put these graphics pipeline components in the correct order:
 fragmentshader
 primitiveassembly
 rasterizer
 vertexshader
. .

_____/2 If you do not tell OpenGL to do hidden surface removal, and depth buffer is not in use, and two objects overlap the same pixel, then what color is that pixel?
 OpenGL throws an error.
 the closer object
 the farther object
 the first object to be drawn there
 the last object to be drawn there
. .

_____/2 What is the purpose of vPosition in this line of code?
var vNormaljs = gl.getAttribLocation( program, "vNormal" );
. .

_____/2 There is an aliasing problem when raytracing objects that are so small that one ray sent through the center of a pixel might go to the left of the object, and the next ray, through the center of the next pixel, go to its right. Give two ways to modify ray tracing to lessen this problem.
. .

_____/2 Bezier curves do not generally go through the their control points, except for the first and last control points. It would be quite easy to design a curve fitting system so that the curve goes through all the control points. However the CAD community has decided that they don't want this. Why?
. .

_____/2 In a fragment shader, a sampler2D does something more than a simple array lookup like you have in most programming languages. What?
. .

_____/2 Tell me about view normalization. What is it? What is good about it?
. .

(2 pts) The last big update in the OpenGL standard removed many things from the standard. Name two things that we've discussed in class that we now have to implement ourselves if we wish to use.
. .

_____/2 Consider this 2D homogeneous point: (2,3,4). Rotate it by 90 degrees. What is the resulting point, in a Cartesian representation?
. .

_____/2 What is the 3x3 2D homogeneous matrix for a rotation by 90 degrees?
. .

_____/2 Compute the projection equations when the viewpoint is at (0,0,0) and the projection plane is x+2y+2z=4. Use Cartesian coordinates. You do not need to put the result into a matrix form, but simplify your result as much as possible.
. .

_____/2 Using homogeneous coordinates for spline control points gives the designer an extra tool. What happens to the curve when the designer changes the weight in a homogeneous control point?
. .

_____/2 Why are the Bresenham line and circle drawing algorithms less useful now?
. .

_____/2 In the graphics pipeline, when a triangle is processed, the (x,y,z) coordinates of the vertices are interpolated across the whole triangle to give the coordinates of each fragment. Name two other things that may commonly be specified at the vertices and then interpolated across the triangle to give a value for each fragment.
. .

_____/2 Given a=(3, 4, 5) compute a matrix M so that, for any p, (a ⋅ p) a = M p
. .

_____/2 Before memory was cheap enough for depth buffers to be practical, one hidden surface technique involved sorting the objects by distance and then drawing them into the color buffer backtofront.
 Name this method.
 Describe one complexity with implementing it.
. .

_____/2 In a shader, what is the difference between a uniform variable and a varying variable?
. .

_____/2 In this code to compute diffuse lighting:
float intensity = max(0.0, dot(N, normalize(L)));
where is the light source when max makes a difference?
. .

_____/2 Given a sphere of radius one, what's the normal to the surface at the point (0,0,1)?
. .

_____/2 3D clipping is usually implemented with six stages of a viewing pipeline. What are those 6 stages?
. .

_____/2 What causes some people to be tetrachromats?
. .

_____/2 Give 2 reasons why we usually use a sequence of lowdegree curves instead of one high degree curve.
. .

_____/2 What does the word rational mean in NURBS?
. .

_____/2 What might clipping do to the number of vertices?
 The number of vertices might stay the same or reduce but not grow.
 The number of vertices might stay the same or grow but not reduce.
 The number of vertices might stay the same or grow or reduce.
 The number of vertices must stay the same.
. .

_____/2 What is the difference between Phong shading and Gouraud shading?
. .

_____/2 What does it mean to separate the geometry from the topology when building a model?
. .

_____/2 Can the volume of a small cube change when its vertices are rotated? (yes or no). Why (not)?
. .

_____/2 What does this do:
gl.vertexAttribPointer( vNormal, 3, gl.FLOAT, false, 0, 0 );
. .

_____/2 What does this JS line do?
document.getElementById("ButtonX").onclick = function(){axis = xAxis;};
. .

_____/2 Where is the 3D homogeneous1point (1,0,0,0)?
. .
End of final exam